Research Paradigms and Assumptions of Understanding
|Ontological||What is the nature of reality?||Reality is objective and singular, apart from the researcher.||Reality is subjective and multiple as seen by participants in a study.|
|Epistemological||What is the relationship of the researcher to that researched?||Researcher is independent from that being researched.||Researcher interacts with that being researched.|
|Axiological||What is the role of values?||Value-free and unbiased.||Value-laden and biased.|
|Rhetorical||What is the language of research?||Formal
Based on set definitions
Use of accepted quantitative words
Accepted qualitative words
|Methodological||What is the process of research?||Deductive process
Cause and effect
Static design-categories isolated before study
Generalizations leading to prediction, explanation, and understanding
Accurate and reliable through validity and reliability
Mutual simultaneous shaping of factors
Emerging design-categories identified during research process
Patterns, theories developed for understanding
Accurate and reliable through verification
Adapted from Table 1.1 Quantitative and Qualitative Paradigm Assumptions (Creswell, 1994, pp.5)
Lofland et.al. (2006) in Chapter 1, Starting Where You Are explained there are three possibilities of starting point of a researcher to commence a research. The possible start point are:
- Personal experience and biography, in which researchers may start a research from their personal experience (such as job, physical mishap, the development loss-maintenance of an intimate relationship, illness, enjoyed activity and living arrangement) and biography of themselves and others.
- Intellectual curiosity, as a powerful motivator of research that academic interests an ideas can move the researcher to fieldwork just as experiential factors can.
- Tradition and justification, in which a research starts from where a researcher provided with the necessary meaningful linkages between the personal and emotional on the one hand, and the stringent intellectual operations to come on the other.
Babbie (2005) explain paradigm as a model or framework for observation and understanding, which shapes both what we see and how we understand it.
There are two paradigms of methodology of research we can use to look into certain subject in the research. As explained by Creswell (1994) that the paradigms are:
- Quantitative that comes from an empiricist tradition established by the authorities, also termed as traditional, positivist, experimental or empiricist paradigm.
- Qualitative which began as a countermovement to the positivist tradition in the late 19th century then its known as well as constructivist approach or naturalistic, interpretative approach or post-positivist / postmodernism perspective.
Babbie, Earl. 2005. The Basic of Social Research. Thomson Learning, Inc. Wadsworth
Creswell, John W. 1994. Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. SAGE Publications, Inc.Thousand Oaks
Lofland, John, David A. Snow, Leon Anderson, and Lyn H. Lofland. 2006. Analyzing Social Settings: A Guide to Qualitative Observation and Analysis. Thomson Learning. Belmont, USA
Published at :