People Innovation Excellence

The Scientific Management Era

Ami Fitri Utami, SE., MSM

The Scientific Management era was started by the arise of F.W Taylor (1856-1915) who usually called as “The Father of Scientific Management”. Taylor with his view aroused as an effort toward a more scientific management practice.Taylor’s output in this era mostly concern in the efficiency of the workers which talks about how to work smarter rather than to work harder. However, Taylor’s output mostly concerned about the productivity without the existence of “human” theory inside it. Despites of that, in this era Taylor was followed by another 6 experts such as Gantt, Gilbreth, Barth, Cooke, and Emerson on spreading the gospel of efficiency. Their findings are also remarkable and add an extra view to fill the gap on the Taylor’s findings. For examples, Gantt saw the human element as important in organization and introduce the concept of motivation that used in industry today.Gantt’s concern on human factor already filled the gap of Taylor’s absent on it.

Talks about the scientific management era, most of the outputs in this era are in the form of theory, models and systems. However, one of the form of scientific management which are rarely recognized earlier are the findings of Fayol and Weeber. Fayol’s findings are essential on deciding the elements of management which consist of Planning, Organizing, Command, Coordination and Control. In the other side, Weeber also give a siginificant idea to the scientific form of management with his findings which called the bureaucracy model which aimed to removed ambiguity and inefficiencies in the practice of management.

In brief, the scientific management era provides the next era a more systematic management practice which not only aimed to balance the efficiency principles with the human factors, but also to harmonize the management’s goals and the worker’s goals. In this era, most of the theorist and the management experts are trying to combine the efficiency with the concern to the human factor and try to reach a more systematic management practice to maximize the goals achievement of organization in a form of productivity. This is why the scientific results in this era mostly in the form of systems, elements, and theory, which may give guidances about how to get a work done systematically, in an efficient and effective way. Afterwards, those findings in the scientific management era also give a notion toward the social person era.

Reference : The material are summarized from Daniel A. Wren (2005)
“The History of Management Thought”, 5th Edition

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